CVE Vulnerabilities


Improper Restriction of XML External Entity Reference

Published: Apr 25, 2013 | Modified: Feb 12, 2021
CVSS 3.x
CVSS 2.x
7.5 HIGH

ModSecurity before 2.7.3 allows remote attackers to read arbitrary files, send HTTP requests to intranet servers, or cause a denial of service (CPU and memory consumption) via an XML external entity declaration in conjunction with an entity reference, aka an XML External Entity (XXE) vulnerability.


The product processes an XML document that can contain XML entities with URIs that resolve to documents outside of the intended sphere of control, causing the product to embed incorrect documents into its output.

Affected Software

Name Vendor Start Version End Version
Modsecurity Trustwave * 2.7.3 (excluding)
Libapache-mod-security Ubuntu lucid *
Libapache-mod-security Ubuntu oneiric *
Libapache-mod-security Ubuntu upstream *
Modsecurity-apache Ubuntu devel *
Modsecurity-apache Ubuntu esm-apps/xenial *
Modsecurity-apache Ubuntu oneiric *
Modsecurity-apache Ubuntu precise *
Modsecurity-apache Ubuntu quantal *
Modsecurity-apache Ubuntu raring *
Modsecurity-apache Ubuntu saucy *
Modsecurity-apache Ubuntu trusty *
Modsecurity-apache Ubuntu trusty/esm *
Modsecurity-apache Ubuntu upstream *
Modsecurity-apache Ubuntu utopic *
Modsecurity-apache Ubuntu vivid *
Modsecurity-apache Ubuntu wily *
Modsecurity-apache Ubuntu xenial *
Modsecurity-apache Ubuntu yakkety *
Modsecurity-apache Ubuntu zesty *

Extended Description

XML documents optionally contain a Document Type Definition (DTD), which, among other features, enables the definition of XML entities. It is possible to define an entity by providing a substitution string in the form of a URI. The XML parser can access the contents of this URI and embed these contents back into the XML document for further processing. By submitting an XML file that defines an external entity with a file:// URI, an attacker can cause the processing application to read the contents of a local file. For example, a URI such as “file:///c:/winnt/win.ini” designates (in Windows) the file C:\Winnt\win.ini, or file:///etc/passwd designates the password file in Unix-based systems. Using URIs with other schemes such as http://, the attacker can force the application to make outgoing requests to servers that the attacker cannot reach directly, which can be used to bypass firewall restrictions or hide the source of attacks such as port scanning. Once the content of the URI is read, it is fed back into the application that is processing the XML. This application may echo back the data (e.g. in an error message), thereby exposing the file contents.

Potential Mitigations