The FailOverHelperServlet (aka FailServlet) servlet in ZOHO ManageEngine Applications Manager before 11.9 build 11912, OpManager 8 through 11.5 build 11400, and IT360 10.5 and earlier does not properly restrict access, which allows remote attackers and remote authenticated users to (1) read arbitrary files via the fileName parameter in a copyfile operation or (2) obtain sensitive information via a directory listing in a listdirectory operation to servlet/FailOverHelperServlet.
The product exposes sensitive information to an actor that is not explicitly authorized to have access to that information.
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There are many different kinds of mistakes that introduce information exposures. The severity of the error can range widely, depending on the context in which the product operates, the type of sensitive information that is revealed, and the benefits it may provide to an attacker. Some kinds of sensitive information include:
Information might be sensitive to different parties, each of which may have their own expectations for whether the information should be protected. These parties include:
Information exposures can occur in different ways:
It is common practice to describe any loss of confidentiality as an “information exposure,” but this can lead to overuse of CWE-200 in CWE mapping. From the CWE perspective, loss of confidentiality is a technical impact that can arise from dozens of different weaknesses, such as insecure file permissions or out-of-bounds read. CWE-200 and its lower-level descendants are intended to cover the mistakes that occur in behaviors that explicitly manage, store, transfer, or cleanse sensitive information.