CVE Vulnerabilities


Improper Access Control for Volatile Memory Containing Boot Code

Published: Jan 06, 2023 | Modified: Nov 07, 2023
CVSS 3.x
CVSS 2.x

The signature check in the Nokia ASIK AirScale system module version 474021A.101 can be bypassed allowing an attacker to run modified firmware. This could result in the execution of a malicious kernel, arbitrary programs, or modified Nokia programs.


The product conducts a secure-boot process that transfers bootloader code from Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) into Volatile Memory (VM), but it does not have sufficient access control or other protections for the Volatile Memory.

Affected Software

Name Vendor Start Version End Version
Asik_airscale_474021a.101_firmware Nokia - (including) - (including)

Extended Description

Adversaries could bypass the secure-boot process and execute their own untrusted, malicious boot code. As a part of a secure-boot process, the read-only-memory (ROM) code for a System-on-Chip (SoC) or other system fetches bootloader code from Non-Volatile Memory (NVM) and stores the code in Volatile Memory (VM), such as dynamic, random-access memory (DRAM) or static, random-access memory (SRAM). The NVM is usually external to the SoC, while the VM is internal to the SoC. As the code is transferred from NVM to VM, it is authenticated by the SoC’s ROM code. If the volatile-memory-region protections or access controls are insufficient to prevent modifications from an adversary or untrusted agent, the secure boot may be bypassed or replaced with the execution of an adversary’s code.

Potential Mitigations