CVE Vulnerabilities

CVE-2023-1998

Observable Discrepancy

Published: Apr 21, 2023 | Modified: May 03, 2023
CVSS 3.x
5.6
MEDIUM
Source:
NVD
CVSS:3.1/AV:L/AC:H/PR:L/UI:N/S:C/C:H/I:N/A:N
CVSS 2.x
RedHat/V2
RedHat/V3
5.6 MODERATE
CVSS:3.0/AV:L/AC:H/PR:L/UI:N/S:C/C:H/I:N/A:N
Ubuntu
MEDIUM

The Linux kernel allows userspace processes to enable mitigations by calling prctl with PR_SET_SPECULATION_CTRL which disables the speculation feature as well as by using seccomp. We had noticed that on VMs of at least one major cloud provider, the kernel still left the victim process exposed to attacks in some cases even after enabling the spectre-BTI mitigation with prctl. The same behavior can be observed on a bare-metal machine when forcing the mitigation to IBRS on boot command line.

This happened because when plain IBRS was enabled (not enhanced IBRS), the kernel had some logic that determined that STIBP was not needed. The IBRS bit implicitly protects against cross-thread branch target injection. However, with legacy IBRS, the IBRS bit was cleared on returning to userspace, due to performance reasons, which disabled the implicit STIBP and left userspace threads vulnerable to cross-thread branch target injection against which STIBP protects.

Weakness

The product behaves differently or sends different responses under different circumstances in a way that is observable to an unauthorized actor, which exposes security-relevant information about the state of the product, such as whether a particular operation was successful or not.

Affected Software

Name Vendor Start Version End Version
Linux_kernel Linux * 6.3 (excluding)
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 RedHat kernel-rt-0:4.18.0-513.5.1.rt7.307.el8_9 *
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 RedHat kernel-0:4.18.0-513.5.1.el8_9 *
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.6 Extended Update Support RedHat kernel-0:4.18.0-372.87.1.el8_6 *
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8.8 Extended Update Support RedHat kernel-0:4.18.0-477.58.1.el8_8 *
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9 RedHat kernel-0:5.14.0-284.25.1.el9_2 *
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9 RedHat kernel-rt-0:5.14.0-284.25.1.rt14.310.el9_2 *
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9 RedHat kernel-0:5.14.0-284.25.1.el9_2 *
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9.0 Extended Update Support RedHat kernel-0:5.14.0-70.75.1.el9_0 *
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 9.0 Extended Update Support RedHat kernel-rt-0:5.14.0-70.75.1.rt21.146.el9_0 *
Red Hat Virtualization 4 for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 RedHat kernel-0:4.18.0-372.87.1.el8_6 *
Linux Ubuntu bionic *
Linux Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux Ubuntu focal *
Linux Ubuntu jammy *
Linux Ubuntu kinetic *
Linux Ubuntu trusty *
Linux Ubuntu upstream *
Linux Ubuntu xenial *
Linux-allwinner Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-allwinner-5.19 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-aws Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-aws Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-aws Ubuntu focal *
Linux-aws Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-aws Ubuntu kinetic *
Linux-aws Ubuntu trusty *
Linux-aws Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-aws Ubuntu xenial *
Linux-aws-5.0 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-aws-5.0 Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-aws-5.0 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-aws-5.11 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-aws-5.11 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-aws-5.13 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-aws-5.13 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-aws-5.15 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-aws-5.15 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-aws-5.19 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-aws-5.3 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-aws-5.3 Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-aws-5.3 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-aws-5.4 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-aws-5.4 Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-aws-5.4 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-aws-5.8 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-aws-5.8 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-aws-6.2 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-aws-fips Ubuntu fips-updates/focal *
Linux-aws-fips Ubuntu fips/focal *
Linux-aws-hwe Ubuntu esm-infra/xenial *
Linux-aws-hwe Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-aws-hwe Ubuntu xenial *
Linux-azure Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-azure Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-azure Ubuntu esm-infra/xenial *
Linux-azure Ubuntu focal *
Linux-azure Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-azure Ubuntu kinetic *
Linux-azure Ubuntu trusty *
Linux-azure Ubuntu trusty/esm *
Linux-azure Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-azure Ubuntu xenial *
Linux-azure-4.15 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-azure-4.15 Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-azure-4.15 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-azure-5.11 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-azure-5.11 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-azure-5.13 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-azure-5.13 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-azure-5.15 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-azure-5.15 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-azure-5.19 Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-azure-5.19 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-azure-5.3 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-azure-5.3 Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-azure-5.3 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-azure-5.4 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-azure-5.4 Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-azure-5.4 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-azure-5.8 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-azure-5.8 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-azure-6.2 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-azure-edge Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-azure-edge Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-azure-edge Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-azure-fde Ubuntu focal *
Linux-azure-fde Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-azure-fde Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-azure-fde-5.15 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-azure-fde-5.15 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-azure-fde-5.19 Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-azure-fde-5.19 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-azure-fde-6.2 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-azure-fips Ubuntu fips/focal *
Linux-bluefield Ubuntu focal *
Linux-bluefield Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-bluefield Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-dell300x Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-dell300x Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-fips Ubuntu trusty *
Linux-fips Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-fips Ubuntu xenial *
Linux-gcp Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-gcp Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-gcp Ubuntu esm-infra/xenial *
Linux-gcp Ubuntu focal *
Linux-gcp Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-gcp Ubuntu kinetic *
Linux-gcp Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-gcp Ubuntu xenial *
Linux-gcp-4.15 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-gcp-4.15 Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-gcp-4.15 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-gcp-5.11 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-gcp-5.11 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-gcp-5.13 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-gcp-5.13 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-gcp-5.15 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-gcp-5.15 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-gcp-5.19 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-gcp-5.3 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-gcp-5.3 Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-gcp-5.3 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-gcp-5.4 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-gcp-5.4 Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-gcp-5.4 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-gcp-5.8 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-gcp-5.8 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-gcp-6.2 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-gcp-fips Ubuntu fips-updates/focal *
Linux-gcp-fips Ubuntu fips/focal *
Linux-gke Ubuntu focal *
Linux-gke Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-gke Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-gke Ubuntu xenial *
Linux-gke-4.15 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-gke-4.15 Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-gke-4.15 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-gke-5.0 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-gke-5.0 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-gke-5.15 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-gke-5.15 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-gke-5.3 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-gke-5.3 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-gke-5.4 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-gke-5.4 Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-gke-5.4 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-gkeop Ubuntu focal *
Linux-gkeop Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-gkeop Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-gkeop-5.4 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-gkeop-5.4 Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-gkeop-5.4 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-hwe Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-hwe Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-hwe Ubuntu esm-infra/xenial *
Linux-hwe Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-hwe Ubuntu xenial *
Linux-hwe-5.11 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-hwe-5.11 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-hwe-5.13 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-hwe-5.13 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-hwe-5.15 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-hwe-5.15 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-hwe-5.19 Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-hwe-5.19 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-hwe-5.4 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-hwe-5.4 Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-hwe-5.4 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-hwe-5.8 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-hwe-5.8 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-hwe-6.2 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-hwe-edge Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-hwe-edge Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-hwe-edge Ubuntu esm-infra/xenial *
Linux-hwe-edge Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-hwe-edge Ubuntu xenial *
Linux-ibm Ubuntu focal *
Linux-ibm Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-ibm Ubuntu kinetic *
Linux-ibm Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-ibm-5.4 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-ibm-5.4 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-intel-5.13 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-intel-5.13 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-intel-iotg Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-intel-iotg Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-intel-iotg-5.15 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-intel-iotg-5.15 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-iot Ubuntu focal *
Linux-kvm Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-kvm Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-kvm Ubuntu focal *
Linux-kvm Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-kvm Ubuntu kinetic *
Linux-kvm Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-kvm Ubuntu xenial *
Linux-lowlatency Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-lowlatency Ubuntu kinetic *
Linux-lowlatency Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-lowlatency-hwe-5.15 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-lowlatency-hwe-5.15 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-lowlatency-hwe-5.19 Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-lowlatency-hwe-5.19 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-lowlatency-hwe-6.2 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-lts-xenial Ubuntu trusty *
Linux-lts-xenial Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-nvidia-6.2 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-oem Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-oem Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-oem Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-oem Ubuntu xenial *
Linux-oem-5.10 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-oem-5.10 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-oem-5.13 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-oem-5.13 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-oem-5.14 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-oem-5.17 Ubuntu kinetic *
Linux-oem-5.17 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-oem-5.6 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-oem-5.6 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-oem-6.0 Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-oem-6.0 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-oem-6.1 Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-oem-6.1 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-oem-osp1 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-oem-osp1 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-oracle Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-oracle Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-oracle Ubuntu esm-infra/xenial *
Linux-oracle Ubuntu focal *
Linux-oracle Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-oracle Ubuntu kinetic *
Linux-oracle Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-oracle Ubuntu xenial *
Linux-oracle-5.0 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-oracle-5.0 Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-oracle-5.0 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-oracle-5.11 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-oracle-5.11 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-oracle-5.13 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-oracle-5.13 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-oracle-5.15 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-oracle-5.15 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-oracle-5.3 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-oracle-5.3 Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-oracle-5.3 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-oracle-5.4 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-oracle-5.4 Ubuntu esm-infra/bionic *
Linux-oracle-5.4 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-oracle-5.8 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-oracle-5.8 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-raspi Ubuntu focal *
Linux-raspi Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-raspi Ubuntu kinetic *
Linux-raspi Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-raspi-5.4 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-raspi-5.4 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-raspi2 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-raspi2 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-raspi2 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-raspi2 Ubuntu xenial *
Linux-raspi2-5.3 Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-raspi2-5.3 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-riscv Ubuntu focal *
Linux-riscv Ubuntu jammy *
Linux-riscv Ubuntu kinetic *
Linux-riscv Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-riscv-5.11 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-riscv-5.11 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-riscv-5.15 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-riscv-5.19 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-riscv-5.8 Ubuntu focal *
Linux-riscv-5.8 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-snapdragon Ubuntu bionic *
Linux-snapdragon Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-snapdragon Ubuntu xenial *
Linux-starfive-5.19 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-starfive-6.2 Ubuntu upstream *
Linux-xilinx-zynqmp Ubuntu focal *
Linux-xilinx-zynqmp Ubuntu jammy *

Potential Mitigations

  • Compartmentalize the system to have “safe” areas where trust boundaries can be unambiguously drawn. Do not allow sensitive data to go outside of the trust boundary and always be careful when interfacing with a compartment outside of the safe area.
  • Ensure that appropriate compartmentalization is built into the system design, and the compartmentalization allows for and reinforces privilege separation functionality. Architects and designers should rely on the principle of least privilege to decide the appropriate time to use privileges and the time to drop privileges.
  • Ensure that error messages only contain minimal details that are useful to the intended audience and no one else. The messages need to strike the balance between being too cryptic (which can confuse users) or being too detailed (which may reveal more than intended). The messages should not reveal the methods that were used to determine the error. Attackers can use detailed information to refine or optimize their original attack, thereby increasing their chances of success.
  • If errors must be captured in some detail, record them in log messages, but consider what could occur if the log messages can be viewed by attackers. Highly sensitive information such as passwords should never be saved to log files.
  • Avoid inconsistent messaging that might accidentally tip off an attacker about internal state, such as whether a user account exists or not.

References